Ceramic Injection Molding
The material which mixed ceramic base powder and thermal plastically resin is melted by heater, and then the machine injects to the metal mold. Finally the machine refrigerates the melted material, and we can take the product out.
Injection molding is able to mold the high-quality products which are complicated shape.
Today, the CIM technique has been regarded as a preferred net-shape manufacturing method for making many precision medical and electrical ceramic components.
The CIM process route is identical to MIM. It involves mixing the selected ceramic powder with binders to form the feedstock, which is then molded in a die cavity to form the required component shape. These shapes undergo a debinding process where binders are removed by using either thermal evaporation or solvent washing. The parts are then consolidated in a sintering furnace at temperatures up to 1800 ?C, under either oxidizing or reducing atmospheres.
CIM technology is most advantageous when conventional machining methods are too expensive or incapable to perform. It is ideal for parts that have a complex shape and where high volumes and consistent quality are crucial.
Using sub-micron ceramic powder, CIM-produced products have a high surface finish and very fine grain structures – close to theoretical densities.
The applications of CIM process are virtually boundless. As ceramic possesses high flexural strength, hardness and chemical inertness, it yields products that are highly corrosion resistant, wear resistant and have a long lifespan. Ceramic products are used in electronic assembly, tools, optical, dental, telecommunications, instrumentation, chemical plants and textile industries.
With the increase in market demand and customer needs, the range of material that is available grows steadily in numbers. Among them are high purity oxides and carbides, such as Alumina and Zirconia, and WC and SiC as well as toughened Alumina and toughened Zirconia.
At the same time, when everything is smaller, precision becomes even more critical. TopTek delivers highly accurate repeatability because we micro-mill the molds and develop the controller algorithms to prevent over-molding and ensure correct venting, cooling and release.
A:Low Pressure Injection Molding
Micro injection molding is a thermoplastic innovations specialty. We design and build molds that are less expensive and produce more accurately molded product. Smaller molds reduce part cost because they use less material, reduce cycle times, and ensure more consistent color, which reduces waste.
The LPIM process enables fabrication of very complex shapes as well as simpler components. The essence of the process is that parts can be produced with a higher level of integrated function to meet the customers needs then other process are able to achieve.
The main process features are:
Small diameter holes, LPIM is able to produce parts with hole diameters as small as 0.1 mm (0.004") through walls as thick as 6.5 mm (1/4"). The hole geometry is not restricted to simple shapes but can be complex polygonal shapes.
Internal and External threads, LPIM is flexible enough to allow any configuration of thread to be moulded without any further machining.
Tolerances, through Statistical Process Control of raw materials it is possible to achieve "as fired" tolerance as small ±0.5%. Tighter tolerances can be achieved by machining the injection moulded blanks.
Process capabilities, minimum wall thickness 0.5 mm (0.020") to a length of 12.5 mm (0.5"). Maximum wall thickness 6.5 mm (1/4") and the maximum over all dimension must not exceed 150 mm (6").
All types of materials can be micro injection molded including commodity resins and engineered materials.
Products suited for micro injection molding are typically defined as weighing less than 1 gram and include:
Plugs, pins and clips for mobile phones, hard drives, printers and more
Anchors for optical sensors
Valves and cogs for electronic components
Buttons for consumer and automotive products
High Pressure Injection Molding
Today about 330 companies from all over the world practice variants of powder injection moulding (PIM). Over 70 % of the companies practice metal injection moulding (MIM). About 5 % of the companies produce a mixture of metals, ceramics and carbide components. The remaining quarter is coming from CIM. Between 2006 and 2007 the global sales growth in PIM was near 13 %. In comparison to MIM ceramic injection moulding tends to have larger and higher priced components. The market for advanced ceramic products is continuously growing. The reason for this positive tendency can be seen in the uniqueproperty profile offered by ceramic materials. Ceramics are the material of choice for applications under extreme conditions, e.g. high temperatures, corrosive atmospheres, abrasive conditions or high loads athigh temperatures. Moreover, ceramics combine excellent mechanical properties with a low specific weight. This combination makes them interesting as light weight construction materials for moving components in automotive, aeronautic or space applications and for engine components. Beside the so-called structural ceramics, another segment are the electronic ceramics including dielectrics, insulators, substrates, piezoelectric ceramics, superconductors, and magnets. The latter forms the largest share of advance ceramics.
Figure 1 shows the most efficient application areas of different ceramic shaping technologies（HPIM） in dependence on the number of pieces which shall be produced and the desired complexity of the component geometry.
|Type of component ||Ceramic material|
|guides, ||Al2O3 |
|gear wheels, screw threads||Al2O3|
|Precision dispension nozzles||Mg-stabilized ZrO2 |
|Sensor covers ||Al2O3|
|Tooth belt wheel || |
|Sensor tubes || |
|? Textile industry|
|Wire guides ||Al2O3 |
|Textile thread guides||Al2O3|
|? Medical/Dental applications|
|Orthodontic brackets ||Al2O3|
|Dental implants ||Al2O3|
|Prosthetic replacements ||Al2O3|
|Abutments || |
|Endoscopic tools || |
|Precision watch gears ||Al2O3|
|Optical sleeves ||ZrO2|
|Soft magnetic components|| |
|Exhaust system components|| |
|oxygen sensor components||ZrO2|
|Ceramic casting cores|| |
|Valve components || |
|Turbocharger rotors |
|Swirl chambers for high power turbocharged |
|diesel engines |
|Radial rotors with integrated ceramic shaft |
|Airbag components |
|Glow plug for diesel engines |
|Gear wheel for fuel pumps|
|Electrical components for automotive exhaust ||Al2O3 |
|RF and electrical insulators ||Al2O3 |
|Microwave dielectric components ||Al2O3|
|Electrical micro heater || |
|Cooling socket for electronic components || |
|Heat sinks, electronic packages,|| |
|?Home appliance and office equipment|
|Injector for percolators ||ZrO2|
|Cups ||Al2O3 |
|Printer head||Al2O3 |
|Pepper mill grinding gears ||ZrO2|
|Inkjet printheads ||(black)|
|Back cover of mobile phones|
1.Cold Isostatic Pressing
Cold Isostatic Pressing
TopTek Isostatic presses are widely recognized as the leading brand in the world. This is due to the company's technological superiority in a number of areas, particularly in the institutional knowledge related to engineering, design, manufacturing and the application.TopTek offers a full line of standard models of Cold Isostatic Presses or models can also be custom configured to meet your needs. These presses are available withdiameters of up to 2,5 m (8.2 feet) for pressures up to 600 MPa (6,000 bar/87,000 psi). Please contact with your requirements.
Cold Isostatic Pressing (CIP) is a method of compacting powders into green bodies and near-net shaped in a pressure vessel. The powder, which can be metallic,
ceramic or graphite, is sealed in a flexible mold shaped like the end product. A high and uniform density is achieved, resulting in easier handling, easier machining and even predictable shrinking during sintering.
CIP applications include compaction of powders into refractory nozzles, metal filters, graphite parts, ceramics, cemented carbides, etc.
When using a cold isostatic press (CIP) for pressing powder into parts, a high quality and consistent material properties are achieved. The density and green strength obtained allow mechanical machining in the green state.
Predictable shrinkage during sintering due to the uniform density reduces the cost of post machining.
Isotropic properties in the final product are useful in many applications.
Flexibility to produce a variety of parts and shapes in the same batch characterises the process. Large parts, products with large height/diameter ratios, and complex shapes like nozzles, tubes, filters, insulators, etc., can be produced.
Dry pressing ceramic is the most economic process for large production runs, and is suitable for both simple and complex geometries. Depressions and holes are normally only designed in the pressing direction.
Dry pressing of technical ceramics is a fundamental method of producing high-quality ceramiccomponents. The goals of dry pressing technical ceramics are uniform compact size and green density, consistent part-to-part green density and defect-free compact. Dry pressing is the axial compaction of loosely granulated dry ceramic powders (< 3% free moisture) within a die/punch arrangement. The powder, under pressure, conforms to the specific shape of the punch faces and die. Powder compaction occurs within a rigid-walled die and usually between a top and bottom punch. Press configurations include anvil, rotary, multiple-punch and multiple-action.
Dry Pressing is used to manufacture mass-produced precision ceramic products. Non-clumping granulates are compressed in steel dies designed appropriately for the part to be manufactured. The high cost for the dies can only usually be justified for large runs.
Depending on the design of the ceramic dry pressing machine, components ranging in size from tiles down to match heads can be manufactured. Small discs or plates can be pressed with thicknesses of around 0.8 or 1.0 mm. The tape casting process is more suitable for even thinner, flatter components. It is still possible to manufacture fine ridges or similar structures on the component if the granulate being pressed can effectively fill hollows in the pressing tool, and provided it is possible to create the necessary tool.
4.Gel Casting Molding
Gelcasting was developed as an advanced method for forming complex shapes from ceramic powders. It combines familiar ceramic processing technology with polymer chemistry to result in a robust and versatile process for producing advanced ceramic components. In gelcasting, ceramic powders are combined with a solvent, usually water, a dispersant, and organic monomers to form a high-solids-content, fluid slurry. The slurry is deaired to remove entrapped air bubbles, an initiator and catalyst are added, and the slurry is poured into a casting mold. The initiator and catalyst cause the organic monomers in the slurry to polymerize, forming a 3-dimensional polymer network that traps the water and ceramic powder in a solid gel in the shape of the mold. The gelcast part is then removed from the mold and dried. At this point the part can be machined, if desired. It then goes through a binder burnout step in which the polymer is pyrolized and removed from the casting. The part is then sintered to form a high-density ceramic component using the normal firing process for the particular ceramic material.
The gelcasting process has some unique advantages when compared to conventional ceramic processing methods. It is similar enough to other slurry processing methods, that most ceramic manufacturers can adopt the process with only a short learning curve. Despite the high solids content of a gelcasting slurry (often 50 vol.% or more), it is very fluid and can typically be simply poured into the mold; no pressure is required as in injection molding. This means that there is no need for expensive capital equipment to do gelcasting. Also, because no pressure is used in the molding process, inexpensive mold materials, such as plastic and wax can be used. Gelcasting chemicals are also compatible with glass and various metals that can be used for molds. The uniformity of the blended gelcasting slurry is preserved in the gelled body and, after drying, results in a green ceramic (unfired) having a uniform composition and green density. The organic content of gelcast parts (the polymer binder) is very low (3-5 wt.%) compared to other processing methods and it is easily removed in the binder burnout step. Despite the low organic content, the uniform distribution of the binder on a molecular scale results in a green ceramic that is exceptionally strong, making it easy to handle large parts and allowing parts to be green machined, if desired. Because of the uniformity of the green body, gelcast parts show even shrinkage during sintering to form a dense finished ceramic. Gelcasting is particularly useful for forming large and complex-shaped parts
5.High Pressure Die Casting
Die casting is an efficient, economical process offering a broader range of shapes and components than any other manufacturing technique. Parts have long service life and may be designed to complement the visual appeal of the surrounding part. Designers can gain a number of advantages and benefits by specifying die cast parts.
High-speed production - Die casting provides complex shapes within closer tolerances than many other mass production processes. Little or no machining is required and thousands of identical castings can be produced before additional tooling is required.
Dimensional accuracy and stability - Die casting produces parts that are durable and dimensionally stable, while maintaining close tolerances. They are also heat resistant.
Strength and weight - Die cast parts are stronger than plastic injection moldings having the same dimensions. Thin wall castings are stronger and lighter than those possible with other casting methods. Plus, because die castings do not consist of separate parts welded or fastened together, the strength is that of the alloy rather than the joining process.
Multiple finishing techniques - Die cast parts can be produced with smooth or textured surfaces, and they are easily plated or finished with a minimum of surface preparation.
Simplified Assembly - Die castings provide integral fastening elements, such as bosses and studs. Holes can be cored and made to tap drill sizes, or external threads can be cast.
Refinements continue in both the alloys used in die casting and the process itself, expanding die casting applications into almost every known market. Once limited to simple lead type, today die casters can produce castings in a variety of sizes, shapes and wall thicknesses that are strong, durable and dimensionally precise.
Chacracteristics and Application
Die casting is a custom manufacturing process that produces engineered metal parts by injecting molten metal under very high pressure into reusable molds, made from premium tool steel. In the case of TopTek, this kind of processing method has widely spread. We make various shapes ceramic products by HPDC. and the dies can be designed to cast very complex shapes and sharply defined product features with a high degree of accuracy and repeatability, often with no post-casting machining required to meet part specifications. Unusually smooth surfaces can be produced as-cast, as well as a variety of textured surfaces.
Advanced high-pressure die casting is capable of producing net- or near-net-shape castings of high integrity and dimensional precision at very high cycle speeds.
The process’ advantages make die casting the most efficient technology available for producing a wide range of commercial, industrial and consumer products in durable, rigid ceramic material. High pressure die casting is an efficient, economical process that offers a broader range of shapes within closer tolerances than many other metal manufacturing techniques.
For producing high precision products, Nishimura Porcelain use combined machine for processing. We are doing machine work by current combined machine in the working chamber which is environmental managed before firing the products. This method which is called “Green Processing” is suitable to high-precision products, small lot products, and trial pieces.
Green processing is suitable to high-precision products, small lot products, and trial pieces
The clay which we knead with ceramic base powder, water, and bonding agent is extruded by screw. The material is passed mouthpiece, so it is formed as a picture.
We can form to a pipe or a pole